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美国学生历史 第26期:殖民地的发展(1)

美国学生历史 第26期:殖民地的发展(1)

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美国学生历史   
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美国学生历史   
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年代:
2016
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2020-05-15 19:06
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Chapter 9..详细
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《美国学生历史 第26期:殖民地的发展(1)》内容简介
Chapter 9第9章Colonial Development, 1688—1760殖民地的发展(1688——1760年)81. The Stuart Tyranny.81.斯图亚特王朝的暴政Instead of admiring the growth of the colonies in strength and in liberty, Charles and James saw it with dismay. The colonies were becoming too strong and too free. They determined to reduce all the colonies to royal provinces, like Virginia—with the exception of Pennsylvania which belonged to their friend, William Penn. There was a good deal to be said in favor of this plan, for the colonists were so jealous of each other that they would not unite against the French or the Indians. If the governments were all in the hands of the king, the whole strength of the British colonies could be used against any enemy of England. 殖民地日渐强大和自由,查理二世和詹姆斯却毫无欣赏之态,而是对此感到非常害怕。殖民地正变得太强大、太自由,他们决定把殖民地划归为王室的省,如弗吉尼亚,但宾夕法尼亚是个例外,因为它属于他们的朋友威廉·佩恩。他们有大量的理由支持这个计划,因为殖民者彼此妒忌,他们不会统一起来对抗法国和印第安人。如果所有政府都服从国王的管理,不列颠殖民地的全部力量就可以联合起来反对英格兰的敌人。82. The Stuart Tyranny in New England.82.新英格兰的斯图亚特暴政The Massachusetts charter was now taken away, and Sir Edmund Andros was sent over to govern the colony. He was ordered to make laws and to tax the people without asking their consent. He did as he was ordered to do. He set up the Church of England. He taxed the people. He even took their lands from them, on the ground that the grants from the old Massachusetts government were of no value. When one man pointed to the magistrates' signatures to his grant, Andros told him that their names were worth no more than a scratch with a bear's paw. He also enforced the navigation laws and took possession of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Plymouth. At the same time he was also governor of New Hampshire and of New York. 此时,马萨诸塞宪章已经不复存在,埃德蒙德·安德罗斯爵士被派去统治这片殖民地,他接到的命令是制定法律和收税,而不管人们的意愿如何。埃德蒙德·安德罗斯爵士依令而行,他建造英格兰教堂,向人们征税,甚至剥夺人们的土地,理由是马萨诸塞旧政府的授权已经没有效力。当有人指着自己授权书上地方行政长官的签名表示不服时,安德罗斯就告诉他,这些签名如一只熊爪抓过的痕迹一样不值一提。他还实行强制的航海法规,占领康涅狄格、罗德岛和新普利茅斯,同时,他还是新罕布什尔和纽约的总督。83. The "Glorious Revolution" in America, 1689.83.美洲的“光荣革命”(1689年)By this time Charles was dead, and James was King of England. The English people did not like James any better than the New Englanders liked Andros. In 1688 they rebelled and made William of Orange and his wife Mary, James's eldest daughter, King and Queen of England. On their part, the Massachusetts colonists seized Andros and his followers and shut them up in prison (April 18, 1689). The people of Connecticut and Rhode Island turned out Andros's agents and set up their old governments. In New York also Andros's deputy governor was expelled, and the people took control of affairs until the king and queen should send out a governor. Indeed, all the colonies, except Maryland, declared for William and Mary. 到这个时候查理二世已经死去,詹姆斯是英国的国王,英国人厌恶詹姆斯的程度不亚于新英格兰人厌恶安德罗斯。1688年英国人起义,推举奥兰治的威廉和他的妻子玛丽(詹姆斯的长女)为英国的国王和王后。与此相应,马萨诸塞的殖民者抓住安德鲁斯和他的爪牙们,将他们关进监狱(1689年4月18日)。康涅狄格和罗得岛的人驱逐了安德鲁斯的代理人,他们组建自己的旧政府。纽约也清除了安德鲁斯的代理总督。人们控制局势等待新国王和王后派来总督。实际上,所有的殖民地(除了马里兰之外)都宣称拥护威廉和玛丽。

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